@Nullable and @NotNull Annotations
This section describes @Nullable and @NotNull annotations introduced in IntelliJ IDEA for catching NullPointerException's (NPE's) through the Constant Conditions & Exceptions and @Nullable problem inspections.
These annotations are designed to help you watch contracts throughout method hierarchies to avoid emergence of NPE's. Moreover, IntelliJ IDEA provides another benefit for them: the Code Inspection mechanism informs you on such contracts' discrepancies in places where annotated methods are called and provides automated solutions in some cases.
Two annotations - @Nullable and @NotNull - handle method invocations and field dereferences outside methods.
The @Nullable Annotation reminds you about the necessity to introduce an NPE check when:
- Calling methods that can return null.
- Dereferencing variables (fields, local variables, parameters) that can be null.
The @NotNull Annotation is, actually, an explicit contract declaring the following:
- A method should not return null.
- A variable (like fields, local variables, and parameters) cannot hold null value.
IntelliJ IDEA warns you if these contracts are violated.
An element annotated with @Nullable claims null value is perfectly valid to return (for methods), pass to (for parameters) and hold (for local variables and fields).
An element annotated with @NotNull claims null value is forbidden to return (for methods), pass to (for parameters) and hold (for local variables and fields).
There is a covariance-contravariance relationship between @Nullable and @NotNull when overriding/implementing methods with annotated declaration or parameters.
- Overriding/implementing methods with an annotated declaration:
- The @NotNull annotation of the parent method requires the @NotNull annotation for the child class method.
- Methods with the @Nullable annotation in the parent method can have either @Nullable or @NotNull annotations in the child class method.
- Overriding/implementing methods with annotated parameters:
- The @Nullable annotation of the parameter in the parent method requires the @Nullable annotation for the child class method parameter.
- Methods with the @NotNull annotation of the parameter in the parent method can have either @Nullable or @NotNull annotations (or none of them) for the child class method parameter.