Generally, CLion runs and debugs tests in the same way as other applications, by running the run/debug configurations you have created . When doing so, it passes the specified test classes or methods to the test runner.
In many cases, you can initiate a testing session from a context menu. For this purpose, the Run and Debug commands are provided in certain context menus. For example, these commands are available for a test class, directory, or a package in the Project tool window. They are also available for a test class or method you are currently working on in the editor.
The tests run in the background, so you can execute several tests at the same time.