This section covers various techniques of context-aware code completion that allow you to speed up the coding process.
Basic code completion. Completing names and keywords
Basic code completion helps you complete names of classes, methods, and keywords within the visibility scope. When you invoke code completion, PyCharm analyses the context and suggests the choices that are reachable from the current caret position.
Code completion covers supported and custom file types. However, PyCharm does not recognize the structure of custom file types and suggests completion options regardless of whether a specific type is appropriate in the current context.
If basic code completion is applied to part of a parameter, or a variable declaration, PyCharm suggests a list of possible names depending on the item type.
To use basic code completion:
- Start typing a name.
- Press Ctrl+Space or choose Code | Completion | Basic from the main menu.
The images below show basic code completion for the following cases:
- If necessary, press Ctrl+Space for the second time (this action produces the same effect as pressing Ctrl+Alt+Space).
This shows the names of classes, functions, modules and variables.
Smart code completion. Completing code based on type information
To use smart code completion:
- Start typing. Press Ctrl+Shift+Space or choose Code | Completion | SmartType from the main menu.
SmartType code completion automatically highlights the selection in the suggestions list that is most suitable for the current context.
- If necessary, press Ctrl+Shift+Space once again.
To automatically complete a statement, start typing it and press N/A. The punctuation required in the current context is added and the caret moves to the next editing position.
- Completing a method declaration: start typing a method declaration and press N/A after the opening parenthesis:
This will create an entire construct of a method, the caret resting inside the method body:
- Completing code constructs: start typing a code construct and press N/A:
PyCharm automatically completes the construct, and the caret is placed at the next editing position:
- : PyCharm automatically encapsulates a method call when you directly type a new method call next to it. and then type the method call. When
printlngets the focus in the suggestion list, select it with N/A: The resulting code will look like the following:
Hippie completion. Expanding words based on context
Hippie completion is a completion engine that analyses your text in the visible scope and draws its completion proposals from the current context. It helps you complete a word with a keyword, class name, method or variable.
To expand a string at caret to an existing word, do the following:
- Type the initial string and do one of the following:
- Press Enter to accept the suggestion, or hold the Alt key and keep pressing Slash until the desired word is found.
Postfix code completion
Postfix code completion helps you reduce backward caret jumps as you write code. It allows you to transform an already typed expression to a different one based on a postfix you type after a dot, the type of expression, and its context.
For example, the
.if postfix applied to an expression wraps it with an
| || |
To enable/disable the postfix completion feature or separate templates, in the Settings / Preferences Dialog dialog, go to Editor | General | Postifx completion. You can also choose which key you want to use to expand postfix templates: Tab, Space, or Enter.
Postfix completion suggestions are shown as part of the basic completion suggestions list. To see a full list of postfix completions applicable in the current context, press Ctrl+J.
Completion tips and tricks
Narrow down the suggestions list
You can narrow down the suggestions list by typing any part of a word (even characters from somewhere in the middle), or invoking code completion after a dot separator. PyCharm will show suggestions that include the characters you've entered in any positions.
This makes the use of wildcards unnecessary:
Accept a suggestion
- Press Enter or double-click the desired choice to insert completion to the left from the caret.
- Press Tab to replace the characters to the right from the caret.
- Use N/A to make the current code construct syntactically correct (balance parentheses, add missing braces and semicolons, etc.)
View reference information
- You can use the Quick Definition View by pressing Ctrl+Shift+I when you select an entry in the suggestions list:
- You can use the Quick Information View by pressing Ctrl+Q when you select an entry in the suggestions list:
Sort entries in the suggestions list
You can sort the suggestions list alphabetically or by relevance. To toggle between these modes, click or respectively in the lower-right corner of the list.
PyCharm will remember your choice. You can change the default behavior in the Code Completion settings page.
View code hierarchy
You can view code hierarchy when you've selected an entry from the suggestions list:
- Press Ctrl+H to view type hierarchy
- Press Ctrl+Shift+H to view method hierarchy