PyCharm 2022.3 Help

Part 1. Debugging Python Code

Preparing an example

Do you remember the quadratic formula from math class? This formula is also known as the A, B, C formula, it’s used for solving a simple quadratic equation: ax2 + bx + c = 0. As manually solving quadratic formulas gets boring quickly, let’s replace it with a script.

Copy the following code into a file in your project (though it is recommended to type this code manually):

import math class Solver: def demo(self, a, b, c): d = b ** 2 - 4 * a * c if d > 0: disc = math.sqrt(d) root1 = (-b + disc) / (2 * a) root2 = (-b - disc) / (2 * a) return root1, root2 elif d == 0: return -b / (2 * a) else: return "This equation has no roots" if __name__ == '__main__': solver = Solver() while True: a = int(input("a: ")) b = int(input("b: ")) c = int(input("c: ")) result = solver.demo(a, b, c) print(result)

As you see, there is the main clause here. It means that execution will begin with it, let you enter the desired values of the variables a, b and c, and then enter the method demo.

Placing breakpoints

To place breakpoints, just click the gutter next to the line you want your application to suspend at:

Adding a breakpoint

Refer to the section Breakpoints for details.

Starting the debugger session

OK now, as we've added breakpoints, everything is ready for debugging.

PyCharm allows starting the debugger session in several ways. Let's choose one: click Run in the gutter, and then select the command Debug 'Solver' in the popup menu that opens:

debug Python script

The debugger starts, shows the Console tab of the Debug tool window, and lets you enter the desired values:

Debugging console

By the way, in the Debug Console, you can enter the Python commands:

Using a Python prompt in the debug console

Then the debugger suspends the program at the first breakpoint. It means that the line with the breakpoint is not yet executed. The line becomes blue:

Debugging stop st the first breakpoint

On the stepping toolbar of the Debugger tab, click the buttonResume, to move to the next breakpoint.

Inline debugging

In the editor, you see the grey text next to the lines of code:

Inline debugging

What does it mean?

This is the result of the so-called inline debugging. The first lines show the address of the Solver object and the values of the variables a, b and c you've entered.

Inline debugging can be turned off.

Note that you can do it in course of the debugger session!

Let's step!

So, you've clicked the buttonResume, and now see that the blue marker moves to the next line with the breakpoint.

If you use the stepping toolbar buttons, you'll move to the next line. For example, click the buttonStep Over. Since the inline debugging is enabled, the values of the variables show in italic in the editor.

Step into

If you click the buttonStep into, you will see that after the line a = int(input("a: ")) the debugger goes into the file

Stepping into

However, if you continue using the buttonStep over, you'll see that your application just passes to the next loop:

Expecting next input

If you want to concentrate on your own code, use the button Step Into My Code The Step into button - thus you'll avoid stepping into library classes.


PyCharm allows you to watch a variable. Just click The Watch button on the toolbar of the Variables tab, and type the name of the variable you want to watch. Note that code completion is available:

adding a new watch

At first, you see an error - it means that the variable is not yet defined:

Incorrect adding watch

However, when the program execution continues to the scope that defines the variable, the watch gets the following view:

Correst adding watch

Evaluating expressions

Finally, you can evaluate any expression at any time. For example, if you want to see the value of the variable, click the button Evaluate expression, and then in the dialog that opens, click Evaluate:

evaluating expressions

PyCharm gives you the possibility to evaluate any expression. For example:

evaluating a math expression

Refer to the section Evaluate expressions.

You can enter some commands in the Debug Console to show the variables values. (the Python prompt icon toggle this mode). For example, you can change the a variable. This change will be shown in the corresponding code in the Editor.

Debugging using the prompt console

Changing format of the decimal variables

In PyCharm debugger, you can preview int variables in the hexadecimal or binary format. This might be particularly helpful when you debug network scripts that include binary protocols.

To change the display format, select one or several int variables in the Variables list, right-click, and select View as | Hex from the context menu.

Content menu to preview decimal values in the hexadecimal format

The format of the variables change both in the list of the variables and in the editor.

Hexadecimal representation of the debuged variables


This brief tutorial is over - congrats! Let's repeat what you've learnt from it:

  • You've refreshed your knowledge of the breakpoints and learnt how to place them.

  • You've learnt how to begin the debugger session, and how to show the Python prompt in the debugger console.

  • You've refreshed your knowledge about the inline debugging.

  • You've tried hands on stepping, watches and evaluating expressions.

The next step is intended for the Professional edition users - this is Debugging Django Templates.

Last modified: 17 March 2022