**Zero History**
Maya indians had a cleverly designed solar calendar, like the Egyptians had. This sophisticated calendar differed of that the conquering Europeans brought with them. Maya indians had number zero, which is not a European calendar making. Starting-point is August 11 or 13 3114 BCE.
Maya numerals
As a result of the above-mentioned, it was not always known in the Western, the year of the change of the millennium. It got a taste a few years ago of the speculations and discussions. We forgot it already, huh? The Western Gregorian calendar has been introduced in 1582.
Gregorian calendar
Below is another way to mark the Maya numerals. Picture is from the book, but the numbers are known information. The Maya numeral zero in the uppper image is similar to today's American football game instrument as a ball. Zero is something real, like a birthday for any. There is something, but it does not yet have age or value. We do not need the term non-existent of existence. The ball is in the game and initially goals are 0 - 0.
**Charles Seife**
*The Biography of a Dangerous Idea*
Charles Seife
The idea of visual form of the calculation is admirable. In Western countries, the corresponding associated with playing cards, where the card value is described in the Wild (Joker), kings, queens, etc. EPC (Equivalent Proportional Calculation) does not calculate the numbers, but the phenomena. The first coefficient, the second coefficient .... the whole assembly 1. The whole assembly is not a factor, because 1 x 1 is still 1 and on the other hand 0 x 0 is 0. Everything has an opposite side, such as the electric current of the device, as it is sometimes described 0 - 1. Zero-based calculation belongs to imaginary numbers, to which few people are capable. The time will certainly pass pondering, say, the essence of SQR(0). In the presented calculation the number one is like an iron bar, which is used to lever the value out of the value space. Archimedes did the levering to the hand-touchable things, now it is possible to non-touchable values. Iron bar to hand-touchable things, imaginary bar to non-touchable things. The calculation being based on the energy formula E = m c^{2}, the speed of light is the maximum attainable speed c= 1 = 300,000 km/s, but not over this speed.
1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 0
0.125 - 0.16 - 0.2 - 0.25 - 0.315 - 0.4 - 0.5 - 0.63 - 0.8 - 1
## Fibonacci Number Zero
When Leonardo Fibonacci (1189 - 1250) was a young boy he travelled with his father, who was an Italian businessman. They went often over the Mediterrenean and met there Arabic sellers. On these trips Fibonacci learned the language and studied the Arabic way to calculate.
Now we have to remember that Roman "stick numbers" were difficult to calculate and there was not the figure zero, nill, nothing etc. What they did was to leave an empty place in calculation. By this way the calculation was possible using Roman numbers. Today we can undestand the Arabic way was much better. When Fibonacci was a man he teached in Bologna's University, Italy.
Fibonacci
When Leonardo Fibonacci (1189 - 1250) was a young boy he travelled with his father, who was an Italian businessman. They went often over the Mediterrenean and met there Arabic sellers. On these trips Fibonacci learned the language and studied the Arabic way to calculate.
Now we have to remember that Roman "stick numbers" were difficult to calculate and there was not the figure zero, nill, nothing etc. What they did was to leave an empty place in calculation. By this way the calculation was possible using Roman numbers. Today we can undestand the Arabic way was much better. When Fibonacci was a man he teached in Bologna's University, Italy.
That the thing is not too simple, because the number 0 did not come from Arabics. They were the Indians who developed a consistant use of the zero. Fibonacci learned "the nine Indian figures are: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. With these nine figures, and with the sign 0 ... any number may be written." When you say it in that way, it sounds as if Fibonacci did not realise that zero was a digit!
Now we are saying that we understand the number zero. How about when calculating years and there is no year zero in the BC / AD year numbering system. When the numbering goes from BC (before Christ) to AD (anno domini) the year numbering goes: 3BC, 2BC, 1BC, 1AD, 2AD, 3AD. BC is sometimes known known as BCE (before common era) and AD as CE (common era).
Fibonacci numbers start from zero 0 - 1 - 2 - 3 - 5 - 8 ... We have learned through these pages that it belongs to Golden Ratio. How about the next one, did you know this?
**e = 2.71828 18284 59045 23536 (truncated to 20 decimal places)**
The formula for working out the value of **e**.
**e = 1/0! + 1/1! + 1/2! + 1/3! + 1/4! + 1/5! + 1/6! + ....**
The **!** symbol means factorial. It is sometimes known as 'shriek'! **5!** means **1x2x3x4x5**. **1!** is just **1**. **0!** is defined as **1** as well.
Zero
The Mayans developed a positional number system using zero. This did not influence in any European number system. It would be impossible to have modern mathematics without figure zero. It can say the figure zero is a place holder.
To get the story more interesting, I am saying the Proportional Equivalent Calculation is like the Mayans positional number system, but now having values and different phenomenas to calculate. When we have an apple, we say that we have one (an) apple. When we give it to someone, we say; we have zero apples. Note that zero is nothing but number. Apples in sentence are in pluralis form?
Back to the history. The indian mathematician Brahmagupta understood that zero was a real number and gave rules for its use in 628 AD. Something what is nothing belongs to something what we have. The same idea is in the Equivalent Proportional Calculation when we say that something we cannot touch, belongs to something we can touch. Number zero is something we cannot touch, but number one is something we can touch or understand. Zero is like a dot in a text. In sentence there is nothing behind the dot, which belongs to the sentence. It is possible write a text without any dot, but what happens reading the text?
31.1.2015*11:10 (500 - 536) www.karikolehmainen.com epcalculation@gmail.com |