Primary guardian, great! But what happens if there are no guardians yet? In this step we tackle that problem by combining two great features: visual testing with visual debugging.
Note: In the next tutorial step we do some coding for this situation.
Let's imagine we were working on our
test_primary_guardian test and did something like this:
def test_primary_guardian(player_one):assert player_one.primary_guardian
It raises an error:
This error message is quite helpful, but let's imagine you're confused about it. "What do you mean, there's no primary guardian?" You'd like to explore a little to see what's going wrong.
print() Will Not Help You Here
What's the number one debugger in Python?
Alas, the humble
def test_primary_guardian(player_one):print(player_one.guardians)assert player_one.primary_guardian
Your tests run, but...nada.
pytest is capturing output.
Besides, you've now changed your code as part of investigating a problem.
You could learn how to generate console output in
pytest, but that would be the same issue -- writing debugging statements into your code which you might accidentally check in.
The debugger was meant for this. Fortunately PyCharm has a great "visual" debugger, tightly integrated with "visual testing." Let's use that.
Let's now run that one test, but under the debugger, which itself will then run
Click the green triangle in the gutter to the left of
test_primary_guardian and choose `Debug 'pytest for test_play...'.
This brings up a new tool window in the bottom, running the debugger:
Our test execution has stopped on the line with the assertion.
Variables pane shows that
player_one exists in the scope and we can take a look at it:
Aha, that's the problem! But let's say we still couldn't spot it. We want to poke around interactively.
player_one.primary_guardian in that line of code -- the one triggering the error -- then right click and choose
When you click the
Evaluate button, you see the output:
You can now poke around interactively in the state at that point by typing in the
You can even overwrite the value of a variable in the scope or create new variables.
You're currently poking around in the code for the test, but perhaps you want to poke around in the implementation.
Step Into button and the debugger will put you on the
return self.guardians line in the
With this we quickly see what is the problem: there is no item zero in
Finish up by removing the
assert player_one.primary_guardian line and clearing the breakpoint by clicking on the red circle.
Close the debugger tool window by clicking on its
The debugger is a fantastic tool when doing TDD -- not just when you have a problem, but whenever you want to explore.